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Nutanix is a cloud computing company that provides software solutions designed to simplify IT management and accelerate application delivery. The company was founded in 2008 and has offices in San Jose, California, USA and Singapore.
Nutanix offers a range of products and services that include virtualization, storage, networking, backup, disaster recovery, and data center automation. Its flagship solution, Nutanix Enterprise Cloud Platform (NECP), is built on open standards and supports multiple hypervisors and operating systems.
Networking interview questions at Nutanix
1. What is a router?
A router is a device that connects devices together over a network. Routers route data between two networks.
2. What does an IP address represent?
An IP (Internet Protocol) address represents a unique identifier for computers connected to the Internet. Each computer has its own IP address, and routers use them to route information between different parts of the internet.
3. How do we know if our computer is working properly?
We check if our computer is working correctly by using a web browser. If we cannot access any websites, then something may be wrong with our computer.
4. What determines bits set to 1?
The subnet mask determines how many bits are set to 1 in an IP address. A normal subnet mask would have 255 bits set to 1.
5. Why should we change the default gateway settings?
Default gateway settings determine which computer is the first point of contact for each incoming connection. Changing the default gateway settings might cause some problems if you’re not careful.
6. What is a domain name?
A domain name is what people type into their browsers to connect to a website. Domain names consist of letters, numbers and hyphens.
7. What is a hostname?
Hostnames are the addresses of a computer’s local area network (LAN). Hostnames are similar to domain names, except they are much shorter.
8. What is a subnet mask?
A Subnet Mask is a number that is added to the end of IP address to help limit the amount of computers on the same network. A normal IP address block would look something like this (192.168.56.0/24). Meaning that the first 192 addresses belong to the first computer connected to the router, then the second 192 belongs to the 2nd computer, and so on. In order to get around the problem of having too many devices on the same network at once, we need to add an extra number to each address before it gets sent out.
This number helps us identify which device is talking to what device and how big their portion of the internet is. Because of this, if I wanted to connect my laptop to my desktop, I could have the following IP address: 192.168.56.100, meaning that the last 100 numbers belong to my desktop computer. Now whenever I want to access files on my desktop, I just type 192.168.56.*. However, this means that anything else accessing the internet using this IP will be able to access my desktop’s files since they’re all sharing the same netmask. So in order to limit them to only my desktop, I’d set a subnet mask of 255.255.248.0 or 255.255.255.0.
9. How do we determine the range of an IP address?
To figure out the size of an IP address, we take the total length of the IP address (that starts with 0) and subtract 1. If the result is greater than 254, the value is divided by 8, rounded down, and multiplied by 8. Example: 192.168.16.1 16(254 -1) 1536-11535
10. Why does an IP address start with zero?
The first octet has no purpose other than to separate the subnet from the broadcast domain which is always 128. You might think the first octet doesn’t matter, but it actually does. When deciding whether or not two hosts can communicate with one another, the first octet determines where the subnet begins and ends. If two hosts have different subnets, then they cannot talk to one another.
11. What is an extended protocol?
Extended protocols use additional bits beyond those in the standard IP header to carry payload data. These extended headers don’t rely on encapsulation techniques. Therefore, they can carry much larger amounts of information. Extended protocols are useful for sending large packets of data. Examples of extended protocols include FTP and NFS.
12. What is a transport layer?
The Transport layer establishes and terminates connections between hosts on the network. It provides connection services for applications to exchange messages across a lower level network such as the Internet Protocol. The basic function of TCP/IP is to provide reliable communication over unreliable networks by dividing user data into chunks called segments and providing error checking mechanisms.
13. What is the difference between UDP and TCP?
UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol while TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. Both protocols are used to transfer data packets across the internet. TCP/IP makes use of a concept called stream oriented data transfers whereas UDP/IP uses datagrams. Stream oriented data transfers are continuous and sequential in nature whereas datagrams are discrete pieces of data that may arrive out of order. UDP/IP is commonly used in real time applications.
14. What is the purpose of each layer?
- Layer 1- Physical : The physical layer provides the hardware connection between hosts and networks.
- Layer 2 – Data Link provides the means of transferring data between end stations at different locations.
- Layer 3 – Network provides the routing mechanism for directing traffic across the network.
- Layer 4 – Transport provides error checking and flow control mechanisms.
- Layer 5 – Session provides a method for establishing communication channels between two communicating applications.
- Layer 6 – Presentation provides formatting services for the application’s message.
- Layer 7 – Application provides user interface services for the networked application.
15. What does the term encapsulation mean? How does it relate to the OSI Model?
(Encapsulation refers to how the packets of information are broken down into smaller pieces.)
An example of encapsulation would be if you were sending an email over the internet. You have to break it down into smaller pieces called packets before it can travel from point A to point B. These packets are then reassembled back together at their destination. If you were not using encapsulation, the entire email would need to fit inside of one packet and travel directly from point A to point C.
16. Describe the difference between frame relay and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). (Frame relay uses a virtual circuit, while ATM uses a permanent virtual circuit)
A virtual circuit is created when you establish a connection between two devices. Frame relay creates a virtual circuit by assigning a number to the connection. When the connection is established, the number is assigned to the line and the frame relay protocol moves the data from point A to point D. In contrast, ATM assigns a unique address to each device connected to the network. Once the connection is established, frames are sent from point A to point F via the virtual circuit.
17. Why do we use the OSI model?
(To understand how computers communicate with each other)
The OSI model was developed to help people understand how computers talk to each other. If you want to send a file to someone else, you first have to figure out what type of computer they have. Then you need to know what kind of operating system is running on that computer. After that, you need to find out what type of network they have. Finally, you need to determine what type of port is being used.
17. What is the difference between TCP/IP and IPX?
(TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol, while IPX stands for Inter Process Communication Exchange). TCP/IP is the standard networking protocol used to connect computers on the Internet. IPX is a communications protocol designed specifically for local area networks (LANs).
18. What is the difference in speed between Ethernet and wireless technology?
(Ethernet is capable of transmitting data at 10 megabits per second, while wireless technology transmits data at speeds ranging from 300 kilobits per second to 54 megabits per second)
Ethernet is a wired transmission protocol that operates at 10 megabits/second. Wireless
19. Name some commonly used linux commands
1. ls -l: ls lists files and directories in a directory. You can use ls to list out the contents of a directory.
2. cd : cd changes the current working directory.
3. pwd: pwd prints the current working directory. If you don’t know what the current working directory is, then type pwd.
4. mkdir: mkdir creates a directory.
5. rm: rm removes a file or folder.
6. mv: mv moves a file or folder.
7. cp : cp copies a file or folder. To copy a file, just enter its name. To copy a folder, first move to the parent folder (the folder above) using cd command. Then, enter the name of the folder you want to copy.
Cloud computing questions
- What does cloud computing mean?
Cloud computing is a model of service delivery for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
2. What is the difference between public clouds and private clouds?
Public clouds are offered by providers who want to make their infrastructure accessible to many customers simultaneously. Private clouds are hosted internally and accessed by only one organization at a time.
3. What are some examples of cloud computing use cases?
Examples of cloud computing use cases include:
a. Web hosting — A web host provides its users with space on a server farm where they can store and share information online.
b. Software as a Service (SaaS) — An application is delivered over the Internet via a software download or streaming video. SaaS reduces IT costs by eliminating the need for hardware, software, and maintenance.
c. Platform as a Service (PaaS) — PaaS enables developers to build, deploy, and manage applications without having to worry about underlying infrastructure.
d. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) — IaaS gives consumers access to virtual machines running various operating systems as well as physical servers, networking equipment, and storage devices.
4. What are some advantages of using cloud computing?
Advantages of using cloud computing include:
a. Cost savings — Cloud computing offers cost savings due to the fact that consumers do not have to purchase expensive hardware and software. Instead, they pay for what they use.
b. Flexibility — Consumers can scale their usage up or down based on demand.
5. How does cloud computing differ from traditional hosting?
Traditional hosting involves the purchase of server hardware, software, and connectivity, followed by installation and configuration of the operating system and application(s). Cloud computing providers offer these services “as a utility” over a virtualized network infrastructure.
6. Describe some of the advantages of using cloud computing.
The primary advantage of cloud computing is cost savings associated with elasticity, self-service provisioning, rapid deployment, resource pooling, metered pricing models, ease of use, and pay only for what you use.
7. Explain how security concerns are addressed in cloud computing.
Security in cloud computing relies on maintaining security at the data center level rather than the individual client level. Data centers may provide firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and other tools to ensure the security of their clients’ data.
8. Why would organizations choose cloud computing?
Cloud Computing provides several compelling reasons for businesses to adopt it. Organizations can reduce capital expenses by eliminating the need for hardware upgrades, eliminate maintenance costs, and save time by avoiding lengthy provisioning processes.
9. What are examples of cloud computing solutions?
Examples of cloud computing solutions include Amazon Web Services, Google Apps, Microsoft Office 365, IBM Lotus Notes/Domino, Salesforce.com, and many others.
10. How do you measure the success of a cloud computing implementation?
The success of a cloud computing solution is measured by the ROI.
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