Are you looking for a job in electronics or electrical engineering? This field has become very competitive over the years. If you want to get ahead, you’ll need to stand out from the crowd. I’m going to show you some of the top Electronics Physical Design Interview Questions.
The electronics industry is growing at a rapid pace. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment opportunities in this field are expected to increase by 22% in next 5 years.
There are several ways to approach electronics interviews. For example, you may choose to focus on the basics such as analog circuits, digital circuits, microcontrollers, etc. Or, you might prefer to talk about new technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotics, and IoT.
Some General Electronics Questions
1. What do you know about electronics?
For example, what is the difference between a transistor and a diode?
2. What is the purpose of a power supply?
What does it do?
How does a power supply convert AC electricity to DC electricity?
3. Where do electronic components come from?
Where do they go?
Why do we need them?
4. Why do we use resistors?
5. How do we connect circuits together?
6. Can we build our own circuit board?
7. When should we use capacitors?
8. What is a capacitor?
9. What is a diode?
Some typical physical design interview Questions
1. What is the difference between a transistor and a diode?
A transistor is a semiconductor device that controls current flow between two electrodes (the source and drain). A diode is a non-conducting device that blocks current flow.
2. How does a CMOS circuit differ from a TTL circuit?
CMOS circuits use MOSFET transistors instead of bipolar junction transistors. Bipolar junction transistors have three terminals; emitter, base, and collector. In contrast, MOSFET transitors only have 2 terminals; gate and source. As a result, CMOS circuits require fewer components than TTL.
3. How do CMOS circuits operate?
CMOS circuits have both positive logic and negative logic. Positive logic means the input signal will activate the output if the voltage at the input is higher than the voltage at the output. Negative logic means the input signal activates the output if the voltage is lower at the input than the voltage at the node.
4. Define a PNP BJT.
PNP BJTs are bipolar junction transistors where the base is connected to the emitter.
5. Define an NPN BJT.
NPN BJTs are bipolar junction transistor where the base is not connected to the emitter, but rather to the collector.
6. Explain how a resistor works.
Resistors are passive electronic devices that act as an electrical load. Resistor values are measured in Ohms (Ω) and indicate how much power a particular resistor can handle before overheating. R V/I
7. Explain what happens when a battery is charged.
When a battery is fully discharged, the chemical reaction inside the battery causes electrons to move toward the positive terminal. When these electrons hit the metal plates of the battery, they cause them to release positively charged ions called cations. These ions then travel through the electrolyte solution until they reach the negative terminal of the battery. At this point, the ions get attracted to the negatively charged plate and get pulled towards it. When the plates touch each other, an electric field forms around the plates. This electric field pushes the electrons away from the positive terminal and pulls the cations back to the negative terminal of the cell. If the current continues to increase, the chemical reactions inside the cell will eventually stop.
8. What are some of the challenges of developing an electronic device?
There are many challenges involved with designing electronics devices. One of the biggest challenges is keeping costs low and making sure that the end product works the way they want it to work. Another challenge is ensuring that the final product meets the specifications of the company. There are many different types of components that need to be considered when designing any type of electronic device. These components include resistors, capacitors, transistors, inductors, integrated circuits, microcontrollers, sensors, displays, memory chips, connectors, and power supplies. As mentioned before, these components have specific uses and functions. For example, resistors help regulate current flow, capacitors store charge, and transistors allow for switching between two states. A good designer should know how to use each of these components properly.
9. Electronic designers often deal with noise issues. What are some ways to reduce noise in electronic devices?
One of the best ways to reduce noise is to keep things simple. Many times engineers add features and complexity to their designs without thinking about what those extra features could do to the performance of the device. Noise is something that happens naturally in electronic systems. In order to reduce it, engineers try to make sure that the parts that produce noise are isolated from the rest of the system. Engineers also try to minimize the amount of time that electrons spend traveling through wires.
10. How does an electronic engineer go about testing the functionality of his/her design?
Engineers test their designs using a variety of methods depending on the type of device that they are designing. For instance, if the device is just a circuit board, then the engineers may simply hook it up to a voltmeter or oscilloscope to check for continuity and voltage levels. If the device contains a transistor, then the engineers may use an oscilloscope to measure the frequency at which the transistor switches states.
11. Could you describe the difference between analog and digital electronics?
Analog electronics is based off of continuous signals. An analog signal is always changing in some way while a digital signal is binary. Digital signals change only between two states. Analog signals are continuous, meaning that they continuously change over a range of values. When designing analog circuits, engineers need to consider how much the output signal fluctuates. The fluctuations must not exceed certain limits in order to avoid damage to the circuit. Digital electronics is a lot easier to design since it requires less space than analog circuitry.
12. What are some of your greatest successes / failures?
My greatest success was when I designed my own PCB (printed circuit board). My failure was when I decided to build my PCB out of wood instead of plastic.
13. Do you think that you would ever return to engineering school to further your education? Why or why not?
I don’t think I would ever go back to school. I am happy with where I am now and don’t feel that I need to continue studying.
14. What do you enjoy doing outside of engineering?
Outside of engineering, I enjoy playing video games and watching sports.
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